Lead/acid batteries all use the same basic chemistry. The positive plate is comprised of lead dioxide and the negative of finely divided lead. Both of these active materials react with the sulphuric acid electrolyte to form lead sulphate on discharge and the reactions are reversed on recharge. Batteries are constructed with lead grids to support the active material and individual cells are connected to produce a battery in a plastic case. There are, however, major differences in battery construction depending on the duty cycle and application.
Nickel Cadmium Batteries
Nickel/cadmium batteries are also used for standby as well as other applications. They are available with pocket-plate or sintered electrodes in steel or plastic containers. A full range of applications is served and nickel/cadmium is especially suited to electrically or mechanically arduous applications.
The principal chemistries apart from lead/acid and nickel/cadmium offered by Eurobat manufacturers are a variety of silver-based and lithium-based systems for speciality applications. These include silver/zinc primary and secondary batteries and silver chloride/magnesium batteries for military applications and a number of lithium-based primary cells for both military and speciality applications. Lithium/manganese dioxide, lithium/thionyl chloride and lithium/sulphur dioxide batteries are supplied. Secondary lithium cells are also available for telecommunications and other applications.